About Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
JDRF is the leading global organization focused on type 1 diabetes (T1D) research. The goal of JDRF research is to improve the lives of all people affected by T1D by accelerating progress on the most promising opportunities for curing, better treating, and preventing T1D. The confusion that arises with the difference between T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is simply from a general lack of knowledge and education about the disease. The following information is provided to assist in communications about T1D and T2D.
What Is Diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus (MEL-it-us) is the medical name given to disorders of the regulation of blood glucose (also called “blood sugar”) in the body.
T1D is an autoimmune disease that strikes both children and adults at any age. It occurs when the body’s own immune system destroys the beta cells in the pancreas. Beta cells produce insulin, which is an essential hormone needed by the body to obtain energy from food. The onset of T1D has nothing to do with diet or lifestyle. T1D strikes suddenly, causes lifelong dependence on injected or pumped insulin, and carries the constant threat of devastating complications.
- More than 300,000 Canadians live with the daily burden of T1D.
- Canada has the sixth highest incidence rate of T1D in children age 14 years and younger in the world.
- T2D is a metabolic disease (also called “metabolic disorder”) in which a person’s body still produces insulin but is unable to use it effectively.
- T2D is usually diagnosed in adulthood, but there is a growing number of cases of T2D
- in children due to an increase in childhood obesity.
- T2D can sometimes be treated with diet and lifestyle interventions, as well as oral medications.
- T2D does not always require injected or pumped insulin.
- People with T2D are also at risk for devastating complications.
- There are more than 9 million Canadians living with diabetes or pre-diabetes.
- T2D is the most common form of diabetes.
- T1D and T2D Together
- T1D and T2D are the leading causes of kidney failure, new cases of blindness, and non-traumatic lower-limb amputations among adults in Canada.
- T1D and T2D are major causes of heart disease and stroke among adults in Canada
Since its founding in 1970 (1974 in Canada), JDRF has awarded more than $1.7 billion to diabetes research. Past JDRF efforts have helped to significantly advance the care of people with this disease, and have expanded the critical scientific understanding of T1D. JDRF will not rest until T1D is fully conquered. For more information, please visit jdrf.ca.